August 07, 2019 in Culture

Spain Culture Paper

Spain as a country has a diversity of cultures and pillars that are the fundamentals and basics of success to the running of the country. Most people recognize this culture due to its Flamenco music, bullfights, music and dance, lots of sunshine and fantastic beaches. However, it has much to offer that the mentioned aspects. This paper covers the education sector, literacy levels, secondary education, school enrollment rates, ICT use and the freedom of expression in Spain. 

Education in Spain

The education of Spain is funded by the state and it is a compulsory for anyone between six to sixteen years. The courses in the schools change annually making it necessary for every child to undertake them at the appropriate time and age. Although education in the country is free for state-funded schools, parents have a little responsibility of buying essentials such as books, uniforms and other materials needed for learning. Once done with the primary education that is a compulsory and fundamental, individuals are allowed to make choices of either joining high school or vocational training school. An admission in Universities is only done for those who have finished high school. Spanish education systems consist of three types of schools including the public schools, private schools, and the state-funded private schools. 

Some of the private schools are funded by the public making the difference very minimal. The education system is usually measured regarding literacy levels of a country. Reports as per the CIA world fact book indicate that the percentage rate of literate population in the country as at 2003 was97.9%.This is an indication of the high percentage rate of literacy in the country with 98.7% males and 97.2% females. Education systems in Spain follow a structure that is known as the basic law of education commonly known as LOE in the country. Further, Spanish education is composed of several sections including the Spanish preschool, Spanish secondary school, vocational training, Spanish primary school, Spanish middle school and Spanish university and higher education.

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Enrollment Rate in Secondary Schools

The presence of a compulsory education for primary and early secondary education almost brings the balance in the rates of enrollment. The rate of the students enrolled in secondary school is so high (90%). Besides, the rate of those completing and attaining the secondary education is very low. This is especially for those adults between 25 to 34 years, which rates to 65% of the population. This much drop out of schools makes Spain be ranked in very low in among the OECD countries (0rganization for economic co-operation and development).Though at a low rate, much improvements and progress have been seen in the sector with about 30% increase in those completing the secondary education. Among those students who join the upper secondary program only 57% of the total population complete their course in the stipulated time with a larger population of girls 61% than boys 53%.There is a notable increase in the number and percentage of students being enrolled in secondary schools with the year 2008 showing 81% and a substantial increase in the year 2011 in 86%.

Literacy Rates among Adults

Adult age in the country is rated from 15 years and above. Adult literacy is the number of adults who have the ability to understand, write and read. Spain has a very large population of adult literacy rating to 98% as of years 2011 to 2014.This shows that only 2% of the total adult population is illiterate ranking the country as among those high levels of adult literacy. The level of literate youth between 15 to 24 years was 99.64% as of 2011 highest value of literacy levels in among Spain adults is 99.65% in the year 2011 and lowest 98.64% in 1981.The rate of female is also not left behind there are significant high levels of literacy levels among the females of the country. The percentage of literate females above 15 years in Spain was 97.22% in the year 2012, and the highest value ever recorded in past 31years is 97.26% in the year 2007 while the lowest was 89.94% in 1981. That of males as at 2012 was 98.61% with the highest in 2007 with 98.63% and the lowest value was 95.90% in 1981.

Impact of ICT on Access to Basic Services

There is much development in the ICT sector in Spain. A greater population has plenty of internet access connecting them to the basic facilities including health services, education sector financial services among others. 

Internet Access in Schools

In Spain ICT in school is developed and is part of their curriculum. The curriculum comprises of digital research schools, e-skills development, and the digital media literacy. ICT is compulsory in both primary and secondary schools. Both the teachers and the students have the freedom to use ICT in their classes and it’s embraced in such a manner that it’s a subject (technology) on its own in secondary schools.

Social Impact of Freedom of Expression

Spain as a country has guaranteed freedom of expression according to their constitution. There is also clear information of presence of press freedom to express their views and freedoms though at times it is faced by difficulties of threats due to defamation. The constitution does not have defined laws for freedom of information though transparency is encouraged. The fact that this legislation is missing may mean very limited freedom to information that may be paramount to the leaders and citizens of the country.


Spain as a country is seen to have achieved a lot in several sectors including education and ICT. Though a lot has been done, adjustments and reinforcements need to be put in practice on the rights of the citizens as it pertains their freedom of expression and access to information. 


Education levels and standards in Spain are high with the favorable strategies in the education sectors yielding the greater percentages in the population literacy level. The availability of state-funded schools and compulsory education in primary schools has resulted in the high enrollment in the schools. The availability of ICT has brought about great development in both basic social services including schools, health and banking sectors. Additionally, the availability of freedom of expression gives the citizens power to express themselves.

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