How and why did early states form in Egypt and Mesopotamia?
Egypt and Mesopotamia are among the ancient town centers in the history of the world. Most of the ancient States developed around these regions due to the strategic locations, availability of fertile land and soils, availability of strong leadership, social relations, and industrial revolution among other factors. As such Egypt and Mesopotamia emerged to be very strong and with dense human settlement due to the availability of resources. This brief paper looks into some of the contributors that made ancient states to build around Egypt and Mesopotamia.
Availability of great leaders
Leadership is very important in the rise or formation of a State or an urban center. Such establishments do require strong leadership for the purpose of pulling people towards common goals as well as interests. Weak leaders do not attract too much influence to themselves and as such it becomes difficult for them to convince people or attract them for the purpose of establishing a state that is fully functional. Egypt and Mesopotamia are places rich in history of great leaders who had the real ultimate power and authority and as such they were too much influential to be ignored for whatever means. For instance, Narmer, being an ancient Egyptian leader was able to unite both the Upper and the Lower Egypt and as a result of this union, the first Egyptian State was established in the year 3100. Such was the influence of the great Egyptian leaders. This exemplary influence was accompanied by immense resources meaning that the authority had enough economic backing due to the many resources they had and as such it was very easy for them to actualize their threats. With this kind of great leaders, it was very easy for the States to be established in the land of Egypt. This is further expounded upon by the fact that the leaders were able to champion the formation of the various laws that were meant to govern the formation and the operation of such states. This was very much significant due to the strong centralization of power that characterized these arrangements.
The formed states were able to be run in an orderly manner since the legal framework alongside the chain of command was well established an as such the leadership structures were strong. All the structures necessary for the establishment of States in both Egypt and Mesopotamia were put in place due to the influence, power and authority of the strong leadership.
Egypt and Mesopotamia are historically renowned for being very fertile since time immemorial. In the past, there was the tendency of the States to be formed in areas or regions that had adequate land fertility. This was so since the fertile soils provided a lot of agricultural potential which was the major form of economic activity in the ancient days and even up to these days such places still attract massive human settlement. The Nile valley of Egypt and the Mesopotamia plain though they had no other resources were so attractive and as a result there was massive human settlement in those places. One of the leading causes of urbanization was the trading activities. The agricultural products were exchanged in the trading activities that lured people into these fertile regions.
Furthermore, it is good to argue that River Nile being the largest in Africa running all the way from Egypt attracted a lot of human settlement along the river banks who engaged in activities such as fishing among others. With time people began settling within the fertile regions in form of permanent establishments and structures were also erected such as the storage houses for the agricultural products. This was very critical as the trading activities needed to be regulated for there to be order since people of various descents and ethnic identities were being gathered together in the name of agriculture. Food supplies were very important in the past and even in the present world and as such people tended to be attracted to places with fertile soils for the purposes of engaging in agricultural activities. The basis of the formation of States was the availability of a sizable number of human settlements and the availability of resources and as such, the availability of the fertile grounds that attracted massive migration and settlement of people in Egypt and Mesopotamia was the motive or the inspiration behind the formation of States in the two centers.
Social relations also played an important role in the formation of States in Egypt and Mesopotamia. For instance, the social relations such as competition with the neighboring polities were very fundamental. Egypt played a very central part in history. It was a center of attraction for so many things including trade among other things. Many other territories depended on Egypt and as such there had to be very strong relations. The country was known and it is still know to having very strong defense system o rather military system. These social relations included the exchange of goods and services and the preservation of the gains made. This was very central in the formation of states in Egypt and Mesopotamia as the duo did attract very strong social relations and as well they also faced too much competition from the other regions that had the same capacity to develop States and empires. This kind of social arrangement needed the existence of states to formalize and control the social relation for the purpose of benefiting both Egypt and Mesopotamia and also putting them ahead of their competitors.
In summary, here are various factors that necessitated the establishment of States in the ancient days. such factors included agricultural factors in terms fertile soils, availability of trading activities, natural resources, religion, social relations and the availability of great leaders to mention but a few. Egypt and Mesopotamia are amongst the oldest towns in the history of the world. They were established and as such other States were formed in those centers due to the above mentioned urbanization factors in the olden days. the strong leaders in this region and the immense authority they held were the unifying factors that made it possible for them o develop States to formalize the way matters were being run in the regions. Also agricultural activities contributed a lot given that the two regions had River Nile and the Mesopotamia Plain that attracted massive human settlement due to the agricultural activities that provided food supplies and also used for the purposes of trade. Scientific discoveries in these two regions as a result of industrial revolution also promoted the growth of towns and States in these two centers since industrialization created employment opportunities hence attracting human settlement.