Sep 11, 2019 in Business

Project Management

It is hard to deny that stability is a perfect basis for the prosperity. What is more, this statement is especially applicable to the sphere of business. Doubtless, that a constant progressive development of a company is an evident sign of a certain degree of success. On the contrary, none of companies perform without any fails and losses because of human matter and a wide range of environmental factors. That is why every organization is supposed to react adequately and eliminate current problems. In other words, a certain decline does not mean a bankrupting tendency. As a consequence, an enterprise should do its best to restore at least former level of performance. In fact, it is not a single activity that is why such problems are solved by a set of procedures, which are united in one multi-sided project. Taking this into consideration, it is to be said that project management is especially important in case of a company’s decline.

The following coursework describes how knowledge of project management can be useful for a solution of the given case study. In general, it depicts practical applying of the relevant project management knowledge. In other words, a certain theory is used on practice. What is more, credibility of the applied knowledge will be supported by referencing various scholarly literature, which proves that knowledge are applied appropriately. In addition, it is necessary to outline the structure of the paper. In fact, the coursework answers two comprehensive questions. The first is what should be applied to the case study, and the second is how it will work on practice. In consequence, the coursework consists of two major parts. The first section is about Preliminary Qualitative Project Appraisal. This part describes project’s scope, stakeholders, costs, communication; and conducts plan and risk analysis. The second part is Project Implementation. It suggests inherent risks discussion, ability analysis; outlines methodology; and describes potential difficulties and problems, alternatives, possible outcomes, and suggestions for the further development.

Preliminary Qualitative Project Appraisal

Project Scope

As the project is just on the stage of concept, it is necessary to develop a particular scope of it. Actually, scope will depict the main objectives of the project. As a consequence, a certain framework will be simultaneously acquired. However, project’s scope presupposes particular steps, which outline the key points of the project. To begin with, some decisions are supposed to be made. It is worth saying that a particular terms should be also given. That is why it is important in what situation A.A., Plc. currently is. Further, certain activities have to be proposed. In general, project scope outlines what and when should be done in order to achieve identified objectives. 

As A.A., Plc. is going to move to Dubai without a considerable impact on seasonal eastern travels, the main objective of the project can be outlined as achievement of the company’s mobility. To be more exact, A.A., Plc. needs a strategy, which implies a gradual move to of the company to Dubai. This strategy is a reasonable choice because incomes from seasonal travels will not be considerably decreased, and human resource will be restored by newly recruited cabin crews and administration stuff. It is also worth mentioning that stakeholders should be involved as well because this project directly influences their benefits from the company. In addition, costs also have to be taken into consideration. In accordance with costs rate, the strategy of gradual movement should be designed. However, first of all, risk analysis has to be conducted in order to estimate potential possibility of the project’s failure. All in all, the first “moving step” is to be done after stakeholders’ confirmation to keep working with the company. The next step is cost analysis and incorporation of certain cost limitations. Finally, as Dubai part becomes equal to European one, an appropriate communication between them should be developed with the regard of the further movement to Dubai. 

Stakeholders

Speaking about stakeholders of the project, it is important to admit that a special attention should be paid to potential sponsors of the company because it definitely experiences a decrease in incomes. What is more, it is worth saying that Dubai is quite beneficial location for the moving the company’s headquarters. First of all, it means profits from seasonal tourist travels. In addition, Dubai is known for developed economy and in-depth designed facility infrastructure. Taking this into consideration, it is to be admitted that Dubai investors should be attracted because it is beneficial for them to develop a reliable stream of tourists and they can provide an appropriate support for A.A., Pls.’s moving. That is why the company should put at least 50% of its shares to the Dubai free economy zone because it is an environment, where investors pick up potentially successful organizations. 

However, stakeholders are not only sponsors. Customers can be also regarded as stakeholders of the project because they take a direct part in the development of the project. To be more exact, customers are the main executives of the project’s success. Therefore, customers should be kept interested in flying by A.A., Plc. In fact, purchasing of EPA, Ltd. is a key way to do that. First of all, the company will be able to provide low-cost flights with nearly the same speed as regular flights. It should be noted that costs are supposed to be economized on facilities and in-flight services while some technical aspects will be supported. Besides, appropriate facilities can be suggested by Dubai investors.

Costs

As the company is experiencing considerable changes, costs should be paid a special attention because an inappropriate spending of costs means an immediate threat of bankrupting. In general, project management regards costs usage as a micro-budget of the company. In other words, a particular amount of costs should be planned for the project separately. In fact, budget is not just an assigned amount of costs for implementation of a certain project. Budget sets particular limitations on costs use, and forecasts them for the next step. To be more exact, costs should be correspondent to time limit and resource demands of the project. What is more, resource need is a key aspect of costs spending focus. Thus, costs for a certain project should be spent primarily on resource supplies.

Taking this into account, it is to be said that costs of A.A., Plc.’s project have to be spent on development of necessary landing areas and navigation. It is especially possible if the company opens a line of low-cost flights so that a meaningful part of costs will be economized on in-flight services. As it was mentioned previously, Dubai investors will be able to provide the necessary facilities and servicing. In addition, the company holds shares of EPA, Ltd. so that it is possible to rearrange its focuses on the development of safe and qualitative landing areas. However, it is also necessary to devote some part of project costs on hiring and training of new cabin crews and administration. On the contrary, it should be done as the final step of the project because the airlines will not need the full stuff line-up in the process of moving. All in all, costs should be spent in accordance with the needs of the landing area and navigation development, and what is also important, costs have to be spent with correspondence to a relevant project schedule.

Communication

As A.A., Plc. is going to move to Dubai, communication is an essential part of it. What is more, it is especially important when Dubai branch of the company will obtain its own independence. Taking this into consideration, it is worth saying that particular relations within the company should be highlighted and considered in communication development. In other words, it is necessary to identify departments or teams of primary importance and schedule their communication. What is also worth taking into consideration, is that teams or groups, which were known for excellent working together can be separated because they demonstrate a high level of trust so that they can work as a team even in distance from each other. In general, particular communication channels are supposed to be drawn. Further, mutual relations between lacking sections have to be established, as well.

Taking this into account, it is to be said that aircraft and cabin crews will have to be moved first. Communication with them does not require any additional procedures so that it gives an opportunity to “update” a performance to the environment in Dubai. In addition, communication between cabin crews and administration is the basis of the entire communication process. Hence, as the main chain of communication is established, the rest of communication lines are supposed to be drawn in accordance with costs spending schedule, and moving of the company. Thus, it is also worth admitting that communications will be changed with a gradual company’s moving to Dubai that is why instead of communication setting order, it is necessary to develop a schedule, which will depict how communications change in accordance with the company’s moving. In such a way, the project’s progress will not be affected by moving of the company, and important meeting, brainstorms, and discussions will be held without any lack of real-time contact. 

Plan and Risk Analysis

To begin with, it is to be admitted that plan analysis is usually conducted when the project has to be verified for its credibility. In other words, the necessity of project development is double checked. However, in the case of A.A., Plc., the company has to direct itself on the given project because its necessity is obvious, and, what is more, is a reasonable way to cope with a threatening decline. Besides that, the enterprise still has to analyse its project in order to make sure that none of important aspects were omitted. As a consequence, the easiest way to do that is to check a project plan, which is an official document, which states main objectives, scope, scheduling, and so forth.

Regarding the case of A.A., Plc., it is to be said that the project’s plan is supposed to depict the following items. First of all, the main objective should be described. In this case, it is obtaining of the company’s mobility in order to move to Dubai. Therefore, particular targets should be also outlined with the regard to the project high executive teams. In addition, total amount of costs for the project should be also mentioned, and, further, divided according to the main schedule. In consequence, resources are supposed to be mentioned, as well.  Finally, some general solutions to particular technical or organizational problems have to be also included, and the work breakdown structure has to be outlined, as well. In case the project’s plan lacks some items, it is necessary to verify whether they are considered in practice and include them in the project’s plan. 

Speaking about risk analysis, it is worth admitting that risks should be assessed not only as a constituent part of the project but also as a negative effect of the project management. To be more exact, risks should be assessed at the activity level and at the level of outcomes. In general, risks can be analysed in accordance with several methods like statistics, metrics, and particular models of simulation. Thus, it is to be mentioned that the project is just on the stage of the preliminary planning so that no clear statistics or peculiar features of the project are available. As a consequence, some certain metrics have to be used. Regarding risks as the general phenomenon of the project, metrics are supposed to be as the following. To begin with, unrealistic schedules have to be considered: very often high-tech projects require have inappropriately intensive schedules. The next metric is a presence of certain measures of the performed work. In other words, work should not be regulated by guessing how much should be done. Consequently, requirements should be clear and adequate. Project size is also important because as the project gets larger, the more likely it is to fail. 

Taking this into account, it should be noted that the schedule of the project has to be regarded as the main limitation of inadequately aggressive terms that is why no risks of inappropriate scheduling are identified. As it was mentioned before, moving of A.A., Plc., is going to be gradual so that each step has its own targets and requirements. On the contrary, project size has not been still identified because of its preliminary stage, and, hence, all activities can take more time, resources, and costs so that it is possible to outline project’s size only after its actual starting. Therefore, this metric should be kept in focus in the further development of the project.                  

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Project Implementation

Inherent Risks

To begin with, it is necessary to say that a process of the project implementation also implies certain inherent risks, which are directly related to some practical activities. It can be a wide range of unexpected circumstances like, top manager leaving, delay in resource supplies, inefficient performance of the workers, etc. In fact, effective project managers identify and prioritize inherent risks by taking certain steps for avoiding them. To be more exact, some plans for coping with setbacks should be developed. As these risks have a practical character, they become foreseeable at the actual process of the project implementation. What is more, inherent risks are impossible to be eliminated completely because they always occur. That is why it is necessary to be ready to predict them and prevent them from development. 

Regarding the given project, it is to be said that inherent risks are likely to occur in the section of landing area construction. It will be a new environment for the company, and it will definitely fail to consider all peculiar features in one attempt. Therefore, some additional strategies have to be designed. In addition, the whole process of construction has to be divided into small sections so that it will be possible to analyse drawbacks of each step in order to avoid the same mistakes. Needless to say, that the budget of the project is supposed to have a separate backup for a risk situation. It is necessary to cover actual losses and restore the main budget in case costs have been unreasonably spent. All in all, inherent risks should be forecasted and eliminated in a relevant way. In other words, the project team has to be ready for such sort of incidents so that no rash decisions are made, and an adequate sub-plan should be used.         

Ability Analysis

Speaking about ability analysis, it is important to mention that it implies highlighting some potential advantages of the company for a successful implementation of the project. In other words, ability analysis does not describe the entire set of the company’s abilities, but identifies the most useful for the current project. In such a way, especially important aspects are paid more precise attention. Taking this into consideration, it should be admitted that A.A., Plc., has to be focused on its human resource even though the half of the airline stuff is going to be made redundant. In fact, it is an explanation for such decision. Actually, the rest 50% of workers is going to move with the company. As a consequence, it means that these employees demonstrate a high level of commitment, discipline, and resilience. These people have a sufficient enthusiasm to rely on them. However, it is necessary to analyze this ability in order to identify a framework of working with human resource. 

As Shackelford suggests, human resource with a regard to the project can fall into the following groups: resisters, “so what?” people, helpful people, and overzealous people. Resisters usually do not share the enthusiasm about the project, and work with a minimum of efficiency. Such groups are recommended to be motivated by outlining a clear benefit for them. “So what?” people are indifferent or sceptical about the project and just do their job. Such groups comprise a meaningful part of the entire stuff, and they are advised to be paid no special attention because it can turn them into resisters. Helpful people are the main proactive power of human resource because they demonstrate a high level of commitment and share enthusiasm about the project. It is worth saying that rewards should be given very carefully so that “so what?” and resistant groups will not feel resentful. Overzealous people are likely to learn quickly, but it often means that they get less interested in the project, as well. All in all, human resource is identified as the main ability of the company that is why the main responsibility of the project implementation should be shifted on them.

Methodology

Actually, a success of some project methodology is depicted through the project itself. The most difficult part is to spread it and make a daily routine for the whole company. It is impossible to implement a particular methodology in one go just by proclaiming that certain things should be done in a different way. In general, any project implementation methodology is focused on the following aspects: automation and workflow, feasibility, proper documentation, and general acceptance by the whole company. On the contrary, many methodologies are focused on technological side of the project. As a result, such methodology is not appropriate for A.A., Plc. because its main ability was identified as an efficient human resource. Taking this into account, it should be admitted that the company needs a methodology with an organizational approach. 

Thus, the entire human resource should be divided into groups, which will consist of proportional relation of resisters, “so what’s?”, helpful, and overzealous workers. In such a way, groups will be given personal tasks in accordance with the main schedule and current status of the project development. What is more, teams will not act aggressively towards each other because general targets can be achieved only by a collaborative work. Besides that, the same methodology should work inside each group. A leader is responsible for the entire group but he or she has to empower the rest of the team by giving it right to complete the task in any possible way but with the regard of requirements and terms of the given task.  

Possible Difficulties and Problems

As it was mentioned previously, problems occur to the project on a regular basis because it is a constituent element of the project’s improvement. However, it is to be said that previously discussed strategy of reaction on problems is more applicable to the project design because it has a precautious character. In other words, it outlines how to design a project so that fewer difficulties will appear. In this case, problems occur at the process of the project implementation. Needless to say that identification of implementation problems is an important focus of the project supervision. In general these problems appear in some basic things, which are not considered as important to watch. On the contrary, basic problems are the root for a sound disharmony in the project implementation, and, as a result, the whole performance of the company. All in all, implementation problems can be described as the following. 

To begin with, problems with the project units are possible to occur. It is usually lack of staff’s commitment, skills, and training, which was attempted to be covered with some technological assistance. As a result, staff remains untrained, and the technologies spend more costs that they have to. Actually, this problem is not dangerous for A.A., Plc. because of devoted and experienced human resource. Speaking about disbursement and procurement problems, it should be noted that they usually happen due to delays of financial support from the side of investors. Regarding the company, it is nearly impossible because Dubai investors are known to have powerful financial abilities. In addition, governmental difficulties are not likely to occur because Dubai suggests a free economy zone so that no regulations or limitations are used towards the company. However, the threat of failure to get adjusted to a new environment can make implementation of the project difficult. Inability to hire enough staff or wrong consideration of the internal market can become possible obstacles for the project’s incorporation. Finally, some external disasters can unexpectedly occur.   

Alternatives

In contrast, it is also quite possible that implementation problems are too difficult to cope with in conditions of the current development of the project. As a consequence, it is necessary to develop some alternative strategies for a successful project incorporation. In general, these strategies are supposed to be quality-based. To be more exact, the same objectives of the project have to be met but with the use of different methods, which provoke fewer implementation problems. Taking this into consideration, it is possible to say that quality and performance are related elements because successful incorporation of the project implies that this project is of a high quality. In other words, any successfully implemented project can be regarded as qualitative. That is why A.A., Plc. has to develop some strategies, which are also focused on obtaining mobility of the company. In fact, it is possible to rearrange steps of the moving so that investors support the company with sufficient finances for a rapid moving to Dubai. In other words, the whole company is moved in one go and immediately starts performing in the market of Dubai. In such a way, finances play the key role instead of human resource, and risk of costs increasing is minimized because the company can cover it with a beneficial performance in the market of Dubai. 

Possible Outcomes

Speaking about the project’s outcomes, it is needless to say that objectives and outcomes of the project are supposed to correlate with each other. What is more, these outcomes have to be able to be achieved only through succeeding in the project implementation. However, it is also important to see the difference between outputs and outcomes of the project. Basically, output is more narrow definition. It means a certain completion of something. On the contrary, outcomes are more generalized term, which means obtaining of some quality or ability. Taking this into account, it is to be admitted that A.A., Plc’s. possible project output is moving to the Dubai while a potential outcome of the project is obtaining a mobility.

To be more exact, A.A. Plc. will be moved to economically friendly environment through gradual development of landing areas, low-cost flights, and meaningful support of the investors. What is more, the moving will be boosted by an opportunity to perform in the free economy zone so that helpful investors will be definitely involved in the process. In such a way, the main outputs of the project can be outlined. Speaking about potential outcomes of the project, it is to be admitted that it is an achievement of the company’s mobility through the moving to Dubai. As soon as the company succeeds in this project, it will be able to react immediately on proactive behavior of competitors, new market opportunities, and the general economy and environmental changes. All in all, it is general outputs and outcomes of the project, which are correlated with the project’s main objectives.     

Suggestions for The Further Work

Finally, as soon as the project implementation will be finished, its solutions will have a particular value. Traditional project management is likely just to draw a conclusion after succeeding in the project. On the contrary, modern tendencies suggest that it is possible to increase business value of the project by development of new directions for the further improvement. In other words, outcomes of the current project can become the basis for the next project, as well. However, it is worth mentioning that designing of the next project on the basis of the completed one is supposed to answer some additional questions. To begin with, the next project has to be a necessary activity for the company. Needless to say that there is no point in the development of useless project. In addition, it is to be admitted that the next project is supposed to cover some new issues of the companies so that a multiple variety of abilities are improved in the company.

Taking this into consideration, it is to be outlined that A.A., Plc. is able to launch the project, which will be focused on the obtaining of the company’s internal expansion. To be more exact, some activities for the company’s growth in the market of Dubai will be taken. Furthermore, this project can also be focused on the development of cheap facilities and in-flight services so that customers will not feel any difference between low-cost and regular flights. In addition, it is worth admitting that the company needs to train newly hired staff that is why some general training company has to be launched, as well. However, it still can be linked to the main project. Training activities will have to be organized in the beforehand so that newly appointed employees will be sent to recently opened branches and departments. All in all, it is one of the most apt suggestions of the further project work for A.A., Plc.     

Conclusion

To sum up, it is necessary to say that all key aspects and peculiar features of project management have been successfully described. The case study of A.A., Plc. has demonstrated how various project management elements are used on real practice so that it becomes obvious that project management is totally practical discipline even though it requires deep theoretical knowledge. To be more exact, the case study required two major procedures to be described and discussed. The first one is Preliminary Qualitative Project Appraisal. It has identified scope of the project and outlined the main objectives of it. Stakeholders have been also described and assessed in order to distinguish their role in the project. Doubtless, costs have been discussed so that particular project schedule has been suggested, as well. Regarding the peculiar features of this project, it is to be said that a communication aspect also has been discussed. Finally, plan and risk analysis has been conducted in order to verify the company’s capability to cope with the project. The second part is Project Implementation. It is comprised by the following sections. Inherent risks have been described so that initial problems of the project implementation have become visible. Further, ability analysis has been conducted, and appropriate methodology has been outlined. In consequence, possible implementation difficulties have been predicted, and alternatives have been suggested. In the end, potential outcomes have been outlined. As a result, a new project has been suggested on the basis of the outlined outcomes. All in all, the paper has covered to main questions: what and how is supposed to be done for an adequate management of the project.     

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